Reflection

When I started this course in August, I was completely overwhelmed at the thought of having to write blog posts about the things we were learning. I had never thought to use strategies that we have to teach our students to communicate ideas in a blog format. It is brilliant. Blogs are a great way to teach students how to communicate effectively.

Which sites were most useful to my blog? Using the instructor’s blog as a starting point proved to be most useful. She had many resources linked and it was easy to refer back to. I can’t say that I had a favorite because I didn’t stick with just one resource. Google was my friend and allowed me to find many different ideas and resources beyond the instructor’s blog.

I will continue to find resources as I continue in my teaching career. You have to. There are so many varying needs that you cannot become complacent and use what you have used in the past. The internet is growing and providing more and more to us. It would be a crime not to use what is out there.

I will continue to blog. It is a great way to communicate with parents and students. You can provide many resources to your students that you don’t have time to get to in the classroom. You can meet many different needs this way. It is also a great way to share with other educators what you are doing in your classroom that is working. I had a professor to say in class once that “Teaching is simply begging, stealing, borrowing, and modifying what works well for others”. I have found this to be true in my experiences in the schools I have worked in.

Lesson Plan Review

Grade Level:

  • 8th

Content Area:

  • History

Theme:

  • Social Justice

Topic:

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century brought many changes to society, industry and agriculture. Many of these changes were beneficial and created a host of labor-saving devices, however, with the new technology came new problems as society struggled with the changing times. One major problem to emerge was that of child labor. All over the world, children were thrust into dangerous situations as they were forced into an adult world.

Common Core Standards

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.1

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2

Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.3

Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5

Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6

Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7

Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8

Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.9

Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.10

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

NY State Standards

New York State Standards

1-United States History—use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York.

2-World History—use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives.

3-Geography—use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which we live—local, national, and global—including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth’s surface.

4-Economics—use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision-making units function in the U.S. and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through market and non-market mechanisms.

5-Civics, Citizenship and Government—use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the U.S. and other nations; the U.S. Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy; and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation.

National Educational Technology Standards:

1-Creativity and Innovation

2-Communication and Collaboration

3-Research and Information Fluency

4-Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making

Alternate Text:

The History Place

http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/

Child Laborers

http://nhs.needham.k12.ma.us/cur/Baker_00/2002_p7/ak_p7/childlabor.html

Daily Life

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist8.html

Children During the Industrial Revolution

http://www.nettlesworth.durham.sch.uk/time/victorian/vindust.html

Child Factory Workers

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRchild.htm

Effects

http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/USRA__Workers_Lives.htm

Additional Links

http://www.historyteacher.net/APEuroCourse/WebLinks/WebLinks-IndustrialRevolution.htm

Individual Miner’s Stories

http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/victorianbritain/industrial/source4.htm

Child Miners

http://www.show.me.uk/site/show/STO1041.html

Primary Source

http://books.google.com/books?id=DNd5_LRxjt8C&pg=PA201&lpg=PA201&dq=child+shuckers+industrial+revolution&source=web&ots=5azFvE7D74&sig=KaEp-Y3ac10nSpT8ndLPvQiv_jw

Agricultural Changes

http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.html

Hot Off the Press

http://teched.vt.edu/gcc/html/PrintingsPast/Newsboys.html

Newsies Strike!

http://www.geocities.com/goosecast14133/History.html

Objective:

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce the students to the Industrial Revolution’s problem of child labor.

  • Students will be able to describe advances in machinery during the Industrial Revolution
  • The students will be able to identify reasons for the use of child laborers during the Industrial Revolution
  • The students will be able to describe how child laborers lived during the Industrial Revolution

Materials:

Computer Lab, Internet, WebQuest Handouts, White Board/Markers, extra pencils

Anticipatory Set:

The students will walk into the classroom and see a series of photographs depicting scenes of child labor on the projector screen. The photographs can be accessed by clicking on the following link:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fl_1vgyOxY4

The teacher will ask the students to share their feelings on the photographs and the impact of the modern photographs within. A class discussion on the will follow and the teacher will lead the class into the day’s topic.

Introduction:

The teacher will begin the lesson by having the students break into groups of four.

The students will each select one of the four roles: Factory Worker, Miner, Seafood & Farm Hand, or Newsboy. The students will then begin the WebQuest. The teacher may use the Monroe Fordham Regional History Center to conduct personal research on the Industrialization period.

Click on the following link to discover what sources concerning Industrialization are available at the center.

http://www.monroefordham.org/vertical%20files/Industrial_History.html

Procedure:

The students will be using the Internet to view Web sites devoted to the Child Labor. They will answer questions on the accompanying sheet after they view the primary sources, photographs, and information concerning Child Labor during the Industrial Revolution.

  1. Have the students start the WebQuest by reading the Introduction, Task, and Process.

-The students should explore the Web sites provided on their Role pages. The students should take notes as they conduct their research. The teacher will walk around the room keeping the students on task and trouble-shooting any potential problems.

  1. Once the students have had ample time to explore the different Web sites, they should complete their WebQuest sheets according to the Evaluation Rubric to receive maximum credit. The students should complete their WebQuest Information Packets for homework.
  2. The teacher will allow the students to meet with their groups during the next class meeting. The students will then complete their WebQuest Group Sheets.

*See Role lists for individual role Web sites

Assessment:

Students will be assessed based upon their participation in the classroom activity and discussion. Students will be assessed based upon the completion of the WebQuest Role

Representation Sheets and Group worksheet with an emphasis on the following criteria:

Individual Portion of the Project

-Research Notes -Role Representation Sheet -Final Analysis –

Structure -Bibliography

Group Portion of the Project

-Completed by all members of the group

What I like about the lesson and why?

I really like this lesson because it is interactive. The students actively learn about the types of jobs children had as child laborers in the Industrial Revolution. This mock scenario allows students to be placed into jobs that the children had. . Further, students will analyze the continued use of child laborers around the world. This lesson teaches students about the types of jobs children who were around the same age or younger as them had during the industrial revolution, the problems that came with those jobs, why children were used and how it is still going on today in other parts of the world.

Modifications and/or adaptations:

This lesson could be difficult for students with special needs without some modifications. First, the educator must determine if this lesson is appropriate for each of the students within the group. If this lesson is appropriate but requires modifications, the educator must review the lesson plan and determine which modifications and/or adaptations would work best.

  • Possible material modifications:
    • For students with visual difficulties, the use of large print would be conducive to their learning.
    • For students with hand coordination difficulties (writing), allowing them to type their answers or speak using dictation software would be beneficial.
  • Possible lesson modifications:
    • For students with learning disabilities in reading – have students pair up with a scribe or “assistant” that will “write that down” for them as they act as investigators

Special accommodation(s) for at-risk, special education, gifted: Extended time allotted per individual student IEP. Gifted students may wish to further their research by viewing the following site to view primary source photographs of tenement buildings:

Technology used during this lesson:

Computer technology will be integrated by student use of internet to discover information in the web sites listed their Child Labor WebQuest roles.

Citation:

Lesson Plan #3. Industrial Revolution. The Monroe Fordham Regional History Center.

http://www.monroefordham.org/docs/LessonPlan3_The%20Industrial%20Revolution.pdf

“I” Poem–The Child Laborer

I am tired and hungry.

I wonder why I have to work so hard for so little pay.

I hear the sounds of my friends being whipped for slacking on the job.

I see adults watching me to make sure I am working and not slacking.

I want to play in the creek and jump rope with my friends.

I am tired and hungry.

I pretend that I am playing with my friends in a grove of trees.

I feel filthy; grit is layered on my skin and in my hair.

I touch the hot machine by mistake.

I worry that I will get my hand caught in one of these machines.

I cry because my feet hurt from being on them for 16+ hours a day 6 days a week.

I am tired and hungry.

I understand that my family needs the little bit of money I make.

I say no child should have to work this hard for so little in return

I dream of the day when I can go to school and learn to read and write.

I try to stay on top of my job, keeping the fabric going into the machine.

I hope that someone will stand up and say it is wrong for young children to be working in these conditions.

I am tired and hungry.

“I” Poems: Invitations for to Students to Deepen Literacy Understanding

Quick Summarizing Strategy–

The Important Thing–Three important ideas/things from the lesson today are —, —, and —, but the most important thing I learned today is —

#1—

The “I” poem is a free-verse poem that personifies something from the text, such as, a setting, plot or character element.

#2—

In the before reading strategy, it can be used as a cognitive primer to get kids thinking about what the text might be about and what they already know about the topic.

#3—

In the after reading strategy, it can be used to have students respond to their readings using the word “I”. It can be used to explain plot events, settings, and characters.

THE MOST IMPORTANT THING—

These poems can be used to teach students how to write in response to what they have read which can extend and deepen the dialogue between the reader and a text. Once they have created the poems, students often understand and remember ideas better because they have transferred ideas from one text to another.

THINKING QUESTIONS:

How could you scaffold students when using this type of assignment?

How can this activity be differentiated or modified to fit the needs of all learners in the classroom?

How do you teach 1st person writing to a student who isn’t familiar with that type of writing?

Kucan , Linda . “”I” poems: Invitations for students to deepen literacy understanding”. Reading Teacher 60.6 (2007): 518-525. Appalachian State University Electronic Reserves. Web. 23 Nov 2014.

http://www.christina.k12.de.us/literacylinks/elemresources/lfs_resources/summarizing_strategies.pdf

The Multigenre Paper: Increasing Interest, Motivation, & Functionality in Research

 

This article says that the traditional research paper is not liked by students and teachers alike. They are not done in a way that is helpful or effective. Teachers have suggested ways to change the way papers are written, thus making them more effective and helpful. Incorporating the internet, interviews and other research tools, teachers can help students create documents that leave room for creativity and enthusiasm for learning and expression. There is not a good definition for a multigenre paper within this article, but there are several examples. There is discussion of how it should be developed, graded and whether or not students are really learning the material. In multigenre paper writing, the student is allowed to use different kinds of writing such as letters, memos, directions, recipes, flyers and so on. This is more like writing for real life than the standard research paper. This also encourages students to think about what they’ve learned from their research and to make use of knowledge they already know about other genres of writing.

Moulton , Margaret R. “Cookie”. “The Multigenre Paper: Increasing interest, motivation and functionality in Research.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 42.7 (1999): 528-539. Appalachian State University Electronic Reserves. Web. 23 Nov 2014.

Thinking Questions

If so there is so much dislike of the traditional research paper then why are they still being used?

How can structure and formatting be added to the requirements for a paper like this?

How can I adapt this type of paper for my special education students to meet their needs and deepens their understanding?

 

Socratic Seminar

Child Labor during the Industrial Revolution

GRADE LEVEL

8th Grade

CONTENT AREA

History

THEME

Social Justice

TOPIC

Child Labor during the Industrial Revolution

TEXT

Lewis Hine: How Photography Ended Child Labour in the USA.

By Gina Mussio; The Culture Trip

RATIONALE

The purpose of this Socratic Seminar is to help students develop an understanding of the occurrences of child labor in the past. Students will be able to generate thoughts on factory conditions and the harsh reality of life for children during this time period. The discussion will include talk of how reform could come about.

ESSENTIAL QUESTION

When should an individual take a stand against what he/she believes to be an injustice? What are the most effective ways to do this?

STANDARDS:

  • Key Ideas and Details:
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.1
      Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2
      Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.3
      Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • Craft and Structure:
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4
      Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5
      Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6
      Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7
      Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8
      Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.9
      Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
  • Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:
    • ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.10
      By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

OPENING QUESTIONS

  • What is the significance of this article?
  • What assumptions can be made from seeing this article?
  • How is the article relevant to today?

GUIDING QUESTIONS

  • What makes this article important to the theme?
  • What other themes or ideas have we learned that can help to understand this photograph?
  • What do we already know about the issue of child labor?

CLOSING QUESTIONS

  • Groups advocating for child labor reform and regulation used photographs like these in exhibitions, publications or pamphlets as a way to build drama and empathy. How and why could these images inspire personal reaction (and political action) in a different way than, for example, charts, reports or newspaper articles?
  • If you had taken these photographs, what would you have done differently?
  • How do the photos make you feel in regards to the photographer, the little girl, and the factory owner?

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

  • Students will know details about the lives of child workers in the mills
  • Students will empathize with former child laborers after listening to their oral histories as they talk about their experiences in the mills.
  • Students will narrate a news report with appropriate structure, detail, point of view, and use of grammar and spelling, and may use technology to add an image to their news report.
  • Students will know the benefits and consequences of questioning/challenging social order.
  • Students will understand what power has to do with fairness and justice
  • Students will understand how power and a lack of power affects individuals.

KEY THEMATIC-BASED VOCABULARY TERMS – critical for understanding this unit

exploit                             mutilate

textile                              apprentice

cannery                           ailing

vacant                              impoverish

tenement                        itinerant

emaciate                         petition

acrid                                illiteracy

newsie                             reformer

crusade                           ignite

monotony                      compulsory

sweatshop                      document

inalienable                     dependent

humanitarian                hazardous

 

Teaching for Understanding

What does it mean to be literate in your discipline?

Rebecca

“Courage doesn't always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, "I will try again tomorrow.” ~ Mary Anne Radmacher

Reading Instruction & Literacy

"What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" ~Ralph Waldo Emerson~